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Suppl 3 - Exodus to Iberia

por Olympus Mons, em 12.03.16

Suppl III

Exodus to Iberia

Plight of the P297 mutating to M269?




The stepping stone to reach Iberia Peninsula didn’t seem to have made any lasting mark in what is today Morocco but one might infer that it jumped from places in the mid north Africa. If one talks about exodus, one piece of the puzzle needs to be cleared from the offset. Take a couple minutes to see the Mp4 animation from one of the most important paper I manage to find:


Our analysis reveals a major demographic event with a significant departure from the null model (P < 0.0001) coinciding with the AHP, between 11,000 and 5500 years BP ( Fig. 2). The first statistically significant period occurs around 10,250 years BP, albeit only for a brief time, followed by a second peak in population around 9500 years BP, and a more sustained growth trend until 7500 years BP. Between 7600 and 6700 years BP, the Sahara appears to have undergone a substantial population decline, which is consistent with records of occupational hiatus in the Tenere (Sereno et al., 2008). This is followed by a rapid recovery between 6700 and 6300 BP (with the help of the Arrival of Shulaveri fleeing the Ubaid)  at which point population levels reach their relative optimum. Despite smaller scale fluctuations until 5500 years BP, this resurgence of Holocene populations appears to be only temporary, and is quickly followed by a major, and irreversed population collapse occurring between 6300 and 5200 years BP (Shulaveri R1b moving to Iberia after fleeing the URUK). Subsequent to this collapse, populations levels revert to a more gradual and permanent decrease albeit with a short reprieve between 3800 and 3500 years BP


The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara by Katie Manning


Note: bold insertions are mine. By the end of this paper at Science direct there is purely delicious Mp4 animation of how it all went down that is priceless o really grasp the scope of events. - (



Therefore events in this supplement should focus on the time frame of the years between  6000 years ago and something like 5300 year ago (4000 to 3300 BC). Or almost the whole 4th millennia. Actually animation in the paper mentioned above shows the brutal declined from 3.500 BC to 3000 BC. 5 centuries were enough to completely change the face of North Africa. Things south/central Sahara were a bit slower due to big water reservoirs, but north was short and brutal. - At this point we’re talking specifically about the ones that were the last ones to be pushed. Those that only had genetic Polymorphism P297, not completely ruling out already M269 mutation. Time will tell.


Let’s recap. At the end of 6th millennia it was time to flee (around 4,900 BCE). Driven by the final push from Hussana-Samarra into the Caucasus, the R1b Shulaveri had to be take flight following the steps of their people that had started the run way before with the Halaf-Ubaid transition about 500 years earlier, and probable has seen the southern part of the Shulaveri grounds (notably Aknaahrar and ???) been overtaken and its people forced to move as nomads.  It’s always sound advice to look for what Konstantine Pitskhelauri has to say about the Caucasus and what he says is:


“ … this expansion started even earlier, at the end of the 5th millennium BC, and continued in the 4th millennium. Large masses of Uruk migrants had settled in the South, and later in the North Caucasus”



This was the time that the region became Haplogroup Y patrilineage J1/J2 and later even got the G2a from Anatolia.  It’s really confusing, at least to me, the P25 (older mutation) and the occurring of the V88 and the M269. Times are too close to each other. And even so, it’s really not possible to be sure that the date given were the exact and correct ones. And naturally it’s under sampled everywhere.

 But, concerning Africa we need to start sampling for P25 and P297.

Nevertheless there is something that is obvious to me - Mutation P25 that led to V88 was, as I see it, in North Africa for a while when the P25 already with mutation P297 in them got there. P25/V88 were the first one being “kickout” by the Halaf- to - Ubaid transition. It means that by around 4900 years before BCE, part of the Shulaveri-Shomu, the southwestern part that used to border with the Halaf people, were already taken by the North Iraq movement by a much further evolved people and they became nomads, Herdsman looking for their place in the world, ending up in North Africa. The Halaf people accepted the Ubaid, the serpent people coming from the south… but looks like the Shulaveri just north of them didn’t. It’s even worth to see if between 5000 BCE and 4700 BCE there is a noticeable singled out episode in the Shulaveri-Shomu realm of archeology.

It all means that later, around 4,000 BCE, when the Uruk finally overrun the shuvaleri territory and crossed even beyond to north Caucasus, there was already sort of a milieu, a context if you prefer, through which to herd the Shulaveri themselves to north Africa. North Africa in fact was on its apogee climatically being on the pinnacle of its attracting people period (the Sahara Pump Theory).  Katie Manning, in her amazing MP4 video and pics makes that perfect clear.


Let’s be clear: By 4.000 BCE there was a clear path from the Caucasus to Iberia. A Path of people like them, a path of landscape to pasture and good land to farm. And North African archeology at that point is rip with papers with it.  It was the climax of the good sahara.


1000 years later, by 3000 BCE North Africa was a shadow of what it had been in terms of population. At the Same time, during the last 500 years of the 4 millennium (from 3500 BCE to 3000 BCE) Iberia peninsula went from scarce to crowed (real crowded if Just Singa  City was 100ha and harboring over 10,000 people). The eastern part of the Sahara saw the first Keynesian experience with the surge of the Egyptian civilization and some were definitely R1b (group 1). A large stock of people cross the Gibraltar to Iberia (Group 2), a whole lot, probably even more, stood around in the center, where the water was still abundant. in the valleys between and around Tassili and Acacus (group 3).

Group 1 stood jumping from pool to poll south bound form Egypt to Chad as seen in previous suppl and bred with sub Saharan African women mtdna L3,

 Group 2 crossed Gibraltar with a lot of women Mtdna H1,  which had a lot of ancestrally with other local groups and I am sure it showed in the progeny.

Group 3 stood in the center of the Sahara with probable a mix of the two women, H1 and L3 (naturally I mean as a larger group).  Lovely story to be told there. As today so many center their attention to the ones that became the Bell Beakers, at the same time there is a fascinating , mystic and foggy story for the ones that coming from the south Egypt and the ones from the south Air Mountains joined in around lake Chad, where for the next 2000 years it became a focus of a lot of settlements and people.  What an action story to be told must this be.


Reading several papers it’s obvious that there were at that point different people. Either the Tenerians, that in south Sahara also buried in lateral flex position,,  those smaller, slender and more gracile “Mediterraneans” that showed up in upper Niger in the 5th millennium were actually the R1b I am looking for or the R1b-V88 is still unclear. There was a middle pastoral period that had all, all, the hallmark and “brand” of what we will see centuries later in western Iberia. It was the cattle (Bos) people. After them it became also a different way of relationship with cattle based on ovicaprids. Inhumations inside habitations area (see Takarkori cave, round hut inside the cave, burial in house, etc.), tendency to mix collective with single burials,

Several papers dwell endless on emergence of Hierarchical elite for that brief period… as we will see in Iberia chalcolithic that led to the bell beakers.

One can find a litter of small sites in the northern west part, which were used for transhumance or small period usage. There is an enormous quantities of sites, hints and proves… but not that they were M269. Since the region is crowded with R1b-V88, unless one accepts that back then most of them were P25/297 and only later the mutation for M269 arise this would make it all crystal clear. Until then... Let’s keep looking.


Back to the remains of the Shulaveri-Shomu that were on the run. So, it must haven’t take them long to get to central Sahara to what today is Libya and Algeria. That is exactly the time when the pastoral round heads pictures disappeared (around 4000 BC) and the Bovidean Pastoral white people II started. So I figure that most of R1b were not V88 at all here. I figure P297 (as most likely we one day will find in Shulaveri) where the bulk (wonder if some already had M269 in their genes). Actually the Sahara didn’t let them stay for that long.


Look at a google Maps, imagine sand as savannah and just follow river streams until they bump into Mountains and that is where you always find them.  If one imagine that even the R1bs already there (Eastern north Africa) in places like Siwa Oasis, might not be friendly to stress out roaming population of horseman, dogs and cattle then they might just kept on going until the mountain ranges of the central Sahara where they  seem to have had a stop in the WADI TANEZZUFT VALLEY. 

Just east of the tassili-n-Ajjar, the Wadi Tanezzuft was for a millennium a site for excellence for settlements because ever so rich in water. Therefore it was a place for semi-nomadic pastoral groups. And the staggering amount of settlements attest to that fact.  Those settlements also denote different networks of people as denoted by different networks of lithic material (or maybe the tendency for site/settlement specialization we already saw at SSC) .  It’s easy to follow the down of those settlements as it increases population in Iberia peninsula (?). Specially focus on paleo-oasis of Tahala.  And Although Dna would always be a decisive factor to clear history I suppose the desert is the worst place to find it. However, the swift covering sand must have kept a great volume of archeological evidence for us to find and complete history in the future.

One must notice that the majority of texts always refer the chiasm manifesting in there around 4000 BC as a base date.

Reading Megalithic architecture and funerary practices in the late prehistory of Wadi Tanezzuft by Savino di Lernia,  as in other paper, is usually referred the existence in the middle Pastoral context (versus late, which was different everything) of Pits, and circle of stones, and conical structures and Stone Rings, annexes and “arms” of small walls (ring a bell? ) which did not occurs at earlier or later periods.  One always has to try to extract the Middle Pastoral from this papers because they tend to focus on late Pastoral until Garamatian period and what we’re trying to extract is a population that came but didn´t had the luck of staying because of the starting of the 5.9 Kiloyear event. Most structures, like burial pits within the perimeter of circle stone (30 to 40 cm same as the foundations of houses for SSC and later Oestrimni in Iberia), being this areas have to be “seen” beneath what later periods did on top of it.


Anyway, there are references to population discontinuity and specially a total discontinuity between middle pastoral and even the initial part of late pastoral.

 Anyway, this round structure with an inhumation in it at the end of the interview is round enough for me. (


MAURO CREMASCHI & SAVINO DI LERNIA (Environment and settlements in the Mid-Holocene paleo-oasis of Wadi Tanezzuft (Libyan Sahara) are telling us a tale of one of the last water resource of the 4 millennium. This paper tell us the story I was looking for. Since the Kura River and the mountains we can always rely on looking for the river, the rock massif and there they were. This here is was not different.  Finding the Tanezzuft valley, west of Acacus scarp and east of Tassili was to me finding the Shulaveri.

This paper is one of many that are a must to be read.  Here just a small example:


Three main phases of cultural adaptation to the changing landscape can be distinguished. An initial Middle Holocene phase, probably commencing around 6000 BP. with an 'anomalous' Middle Pastoral occupation, characterized by large settlements in the Titersin area, in the playa and along the dune fields, exploiting riverine resources, and with a specific socioeconomic organization.”


A second phase, roughly datable to the beginning of the Late Pastoral, associated ,vith the first contraction and shift of the Tanezzuft system, which led to increasing site density in the region between Kaf Jinun and Tahala oasis. This region became the focal area for human communities, but dramatic site density, decreasing resources, and overexploitation of the landscape probably led to the emergence of social stratification. as suggested by the funerary rituals associated with this phase (di Lernia et al. 2001).




“Archaeozoology of the funerary structures (Wadi Tanezzuft) by FRANCESCA MERIGHI

The Archaeology of Libyan Sahara Volume I  Chapter Eight, is also very telling

 Beside round pits with humans and animals (Tuaregs have the myth of site where horses were buried with humans) there are several references to be noted:


“Association of human and animals in funerary structures is quite rare in Saharan Africa during the Neolithic, but in the region under study some animal burials, mainly of cattle, ovicaprines, and dogs have been reported (Paris 2000).”


But, the one I am especially fond of, since I keep on referring the importance of establishing the existence of the original TARPAN horses as a trademark of the Shulaveri travelling, I was baffled by finding here the same amaze about horse bones that I find for instance in the Portuguese papers…


“Equus africanus is a likely candidate for our femur and represents the easiest explanation. Nevertheless, an attribution to the domestic horse cannot be excluded. The femur is not very large if compared to modern Equus caballus  , but its size is comparable to that of its homologue in some Italian horses of Paleovenetian and Roman age and therefore the specimen might represent a small horse. This hypothesis is not supported by the fact that the earliest domestic horses documented so far in Africa are characterized a fairly large size (Boessneck 1988; Achilles Gautier personal communication). However, the strict association of the bone with the human skeleton (the femur was found on a large flat stone covering the human rib cage, Fig. 8.3) may instead favors its attribution to a domestic horse rather than to a wild ass”



The same confusion about the horses that are but don’t fit. They don’t fit the narratives because they were the Tarpans travelling with the Shulaveri and have become the North African Barb horses that travel with the Barbers and the Sorraia horse in Portugal (that is why there is a chapter I am writing Just about horses).



Not aiming to make a weird transition from horses to women, one always must remember that this is a focal point. Make no mistake. Either the Ubaid or the already URUK, the snake people, that the Oestrimni of ancient Portugal credit for their plight, kicked the man… but kept the women.

These first and latter groups where mostly man. And they did (I am sure) the same to the others and took their women. And when they got into Iberia it was not a distinct people.  See lack of women meant having admixing with people  that bring  different loads into your pool and that is why that getting into South Iberia, as they were kicked massively by Sahara turning Desert,  they were already coming with a mix of Dolichocephalic , Mesencephalic (lots and lots) mixed with some the latter group of more Shulaveri Brachycephalic people. A blend of proto –Berbers autosomal and robust and gracile types more Mesencephalic and probably also a trade they brought from North Africa to mix and increase with some of the local Iberia people, specifically the locals that lived in the birth of Bell beaker cultures, the Muge people, to increase what was then found as a sort of trade mark of the Bell beaker which was a rather large number of maxillary alveolar prognathism (Jaw protrudes to the front). 



And variety tend to led to the fortified.






* Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 Years of Holocene Population and Environmental Change – Paul C sereno


* Reconsidering the emergence of social complexity in early Saharan pastoral societies, 5000 – 2500 B.C. – Michael Brass


* Mobility and kinship in the prehistoric  Sahara: Strontium isotope analysis of Holocene human skeletons from the  Acacus Mts. (southwestern Libya)


*Inside the “African Cattle Complex”: Animal Burials in the Holocene Central Sahara

Savino di Lernia


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